A look-back to the most important political and social revolutions in our history
The origin of the word revolution is in the Latin term ‘revoltum’ which means “to go around”. Today we understand this term as a radical or violent change, an immediate transformation and some kind of order.
Transformation at all levels
Revolutions can occur at different levels: they can transform a country’s political system or influence different contexts in the artistic, cultural, social, economic or the industrial.
According to the science of the revolution, there are three types of revolution according to their characteristics, protagonists and causes:
– Political revolution It is characterized by a change of government or radical transformation of the system or political institutions.
– Economic revolution The means of production and the material structures within a society are altered: how money moves or how wealth is produced and distributed.
– Social revolution It is a revolt in which social ties or relationships and social interactions are altered. Some authors have described in this way the Russian Revolution in 1917.
— EFE LaFototeca (@EFELafototeca) October 25, 2017
Revolutions that change the world
There are many examples of revolutions throughout history, which have taken place in different countries and areas.
The revolution of 1789 culminated in a new social order, ended Louis XVI’s absolutist monarchy and with the privileges of the noble class. It was a revolution of the lower and bourgeois classes under the motto of “Equality, Freedom and Fraternity”.
The Revolutions of 1848
1848 is known as the Year of Revolutions in Europe: there was a wave of revolutions in several countries that ended with Europe’s restoration (the European monarchies wanted to regain the throne after defeating Napoleon). This revolution had an important nationalist component, in addition to collecting the first demands of the working class.
Following the path marked by European revolutions and the international workers movement, in 1917 the Russian population caused the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II and overthrew the autocratic system of the tsars. The Russian Revolution led to a socialist state led by Lenin and Stalin.
For six years, Cuban revolutionaries fought against Fulgencio Batista’s regime. Finally, the rebel army was imposed in 1959 and established a communist government led by Fidel Castro. It is the first communist state in the western hemisphere of the planet.
Iranian Revolution of 1979
This revolution put an end to the Pahvali dynasty and brought an Islamic republic in Iran. The revolt was led by Ayatollah Khomeini, political and religious leader, and driven by leftist organizations and student movements. The change of regime consolidated fundamentalist Islamism as a political force.