The Theory of Everything

Black holes are one of the Universe’s most mysterious objects (Alain R.)Temas relacionados

Stephen Hawking studied black holes to find answers to the biggest questions of modern physics

Stephen Hawking is one of the most famous scientists in history. However, few know exactly what his discoveries were.

He studied mathematics at the University of Oxford and obtained a Ph.D. in physics at the University of Cambridge. Hawking devoted his life to studying the universe and had an obsession: black holes.

Un agujero negro es una región finita del espacio en cuyo interior existe una concentración de masa lo suficientemente elevada como para generar un campo gravitatorio tal que ninguna partícula material, ni siquiera la luz, puede escapar de ella. Sin embargo, los agujeros negros pueden ser capaces de emitir radiación, lo cual fue conjeturado por Stephen Hawking en la década de 1970. La radiación emitida por agujeros negros como Cygnus X-1 no procede del propio agujero negro sino de su disco de acreción. La gravedad de un agujero negro, o «curvatura del espacio-tiempo», provoca una singularidad envuelta por una superficie cerrada, llamada horizonte de sucesos. Esto es previsto por las ecuaciones del campo de Einstein. El horizonte de sucesos separa la región del agujero negro del resto del universo y es la superficie límite del espacio a partir de la cual ninguna partícula puede salir, incluyendo los fotones. Dicha curvatura es estudiada por la relatividad general, la que predijo la existencia de los agujeros negros y fue su primer indicio.  La gravedad de un agujero negro puede atraer al gas que se encuentra a su alrededor, que se arremolina y calienta a temperaturas de hasta 12 000 000°C, esto es, 2000 veces mayor temperatura que la superficie del Sol ….. Video de @avatar_mars Fuente de Wikipedia. ….. #blackhole #agujeronegro #físicacuántica #relatividad #stephenhawking #einstein #horizontedesucesos #discovery #creation #nasa #hubble

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How do Black Holes work?

When we throw a ball into the sky, it falls again due to gravity. But if we threw it strong enough, the ball could overcome gravity and escape to outer space.

If we could increase the force of gravity acting on the objects that are on the Earth, we would have to throw the ball every time with more speed so that it could free itself of this force and escape towards the sky.

And if we continued to increase the gravity, it would get to a point where, even if we threw the ball at the speed of light, it could not escape. We would then be inside what is called a black hole.

Black holes are bodies with so much mass and gravity that nothing can escape from its inside, not even a ray of light. Which is why it is impossible to observe them from the inside to see what happens.

Hawking’s radiaton

According to the theory of quantum physics, in the Universe vacuum there are sometimes particles that always appear in pairs: one positive and one negative, which destroy one another.

If this happens near a black hole, one of the particles might be trapped inside and the other outside. When this happens, the particle inside the hole cannot escape to meet the other one to destroy each other.

Those particles that are left outside are what is known as Hawking Radiation.

In the meantime, right inside the black hole, negative particles are accumulated that make the hole slowly lose mass and evaporates itself until it disappears.

One Theory to explain it all

In the seventeenth century, the scientist and inventor Isaac Newton discovered that the force that causes an apple to fall is the same one that keeps the Earth orbiting. This theory caused a drastic change in our understanding of the cosmos.

Until then, philosophers thought that the laws of physics were different on Earth and in heaven. But Newton imagined a universe where bodies are governed by universal laws.

During the twentieth century, when the theory of general relativity and quantum physics was developed, this idea of ​​universal laws came back into question. Because, although the two theories were very successful at describing very different phenomena, they seemed to be incompatible with each other.

Einstein’s general relativity explains how planets, stars and galaxies behave, whereas quantum physics explains the mysterious microscopic world.

We were going back to a universe where the small follows some laws and the big some totally different ones.

“Hawking showed that black holes are an excellent place to study the interaction of general relativity and quantum physics

Since then all the great physicists have tried to unify these two theories. Stephen Hawking is no exception: he used quantum theory to explain the behavior of objects as big as black holes.

Although Hawking helped make important steps, the “theory of everything” continues to escape the brightest minds.

Translated by Chaplin’s Languages | Find out more in Junior Report

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